A birthmark is a patch of discolored skin that appears at or shortly after birth. Although most birthmarks are harmless, birthmark removal is often performed for cosmetic reasons. Birthmarks can be red, pink, blue, light or dark brown, or black Birthmarks are either vascular (the result of abnormal blood vessels) or pigmented (the result of pigmentation inconsistencies).
Vascular birthmarks Vascular birthmarks are caused by an abnormal growth of blood vessels in the skin with include hemangiomas, port wine stains, and salmon patches. Salmon patches and hemangiomas have tendency to disappear in early childhood.
Salmon patches Salmon patches are flat and kind of pink or red (like salmon).Sometimes they fade away, but sometimes they don't.
Hemangiomas Hemangiomas is a big word (pronounced he-man-gee-oh-ma), and sounds scary, but these birthmarks are usually harmless. There are two types: the kind that shows up on top of your skin and the kind that is deep in your skin. The ones on top are called strawberry hemangiomas because they're bright red and look like the fruit. Deep hemangiomas are bluish-purple and make the skin swell and bulge. It shows up after a baby is born. For the first year, both types can get bigger and bigger, which can look a little scary to parents. The good news is they usually start shrinking. Most hemangiomas become flat by age 10, and many become flat even earlier. They can leave a light mark behind.
Port wine Port wine stains often show up on the face, and they're the color of wine or grape juice: pink, red or purple. They don't go away on their own and can get bigger as kids grow.
Pigmented birthmarks When you have more pigment in one part of your skin are known as pigmented birthmarks. It's like a spot on your skin. The types of pigmented birthmarks are:
Moles People often call these birthmarks "beauty marks." But not all moles are birthmarks. Moles usually are small, round brown spots (no bigger than about the size of a pencil eraser), but they sometimes can be larger and can be different colors. They can be pink, skin-colored or black. Some are flat and smooth; others are raised above the skin like a slight bump. Some moles go away, but you also might get more moles on your body as you get older. If you notice a mole that itches or bleeds, or if it looks a lot different than your other moles, ask your parents to take you to the doctor. It is important to have it checked out and make sure it's OK.
Cafe-au-lait spot Cafe-au-lait (pronounced cafay oh lay) is French for "coffee with milk," which is the color of these spots, kind of light brown, when they're on light skin. On dark skin they can be the color of black coffee. They can be small or big and often are oval-shaped. The spots might fade as you get older, but they probably won't go away totally.
Mongolian spots These types of spots are kind of gray-blue. They mostly turn up on the backs or bottoms of babies with darker skin. They can look like bruises. Sometimes they fade away, but sometimes they don't.
Birthmark Removal For most appropriate treatment, dermatologist needs to examine the birthmark. The most effective method for removing a particular birthmark is dependent on its type, its location, the age of the patient, and other factors. The surgical excision is the most common birthmark removal technique. This is best done by a plastic surgeon with experience in birthmark removal and who will be able to minimize the resulting scar.